The discussion above highlights a causal relationship between betel quid chewing and oral, esophageal and liver cancers. One of its popular names is Khair in Indian subcontinent. Areca nut extract was genotoxic to human gingival keratinocytes (Jeng et al 1999b), and areca-derived carcinogenic nitrosamines have been found in the saliva of betel chewers (Stich et al 1986; Nair J et al 1987). Safrole-DNA adducts have been found in the white blood cells of 94.3% of quid-chewing male Taiwanese, compared to only 13.0% of non-chewers, and they have also been found in the tissues of Taiwanese oral or esophageal cancer patients with a betel quid habit (Chen et al 1999; Liu et al 2004). Reference: UNAVA Proper Name(s): Senegalia catechu Common Name(s): Black catechu Black cutch Catechu Cutchtree Er cha Category: Approved Herbal Name. Seigler & Ebinger. Thus, despite the causal relationship between betel quid chewing and oral, esophageal and liver cancers, the presence of safrole-DNA adducts per se is not a cause for alarm. P. J. H. Hurter & Mabb. Acacia catechu (L. f.) Willd. Black catechu, the powder made from the heartwood, has a range of uses, including as an ingredient of 'paan', medicinally, and as a source of tannins. Preferred Names. web interface by Raje Chouhan, ... Anil Kumar Bajpai, in Nanostructures for Oral Medicine, 2017. The level of adducts increased to 1 in 108 (100 million) nucleotide bases by week eight (Randerath et al 1993). Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. overview; data; media; articles; names; Scientific Names. Govaerts, R. et al. Black cutch (Senegalia catechu P.J.H. (2003) demonstrated that the aqueous extracts of A. catechu, in rat liver microsomal preparation, could inhibit radiation-induced lipid peroxidation. Found in Asia, China, India, and the Indian Ocean area, Senegalia catechu or known for various common names such as Black Catechu, Kher, Catechu, Cachou, Cutchtree, and Black Cutch is a spiny deciduous tree growing up to 15 m tall and 50 cm in bole diameter. Flavonoids isolated from A. catechu reduce the production of proinflammatory eicosanoids (Burnett et al., 2007). Of note, 70% methanolic extracts of A. catechu is found to have DNA protective properties. The antimutagenic action of Piper betle is thought to be due to antioxidant constituents such as eugenol, chevibetol, hydroxychavicol, allyl pyrocatechol, α-tocopherol and β-carotene (Amonkar et al 1986; Azuine et al 1991; Chang et al 2002; Rathee et al 2006). ›Acacia cetachu ›Senegalia catechu (L.f.) P.J.H.Hurter & Mabb. It is composed of a mixture of areca nut (Areca catechu L.), slaked lime (calcium hydroxide) and various flavoring ingredients such as catechu (Acacia catechu Willd. Senegalia – from Senegal. Epicatechin was found able to cross the blood–brain barrier and activate brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pathways [97], suggesting its neuroprotective effects. The acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanolic extracts of the heartwood, leaves, and bark of A. catechu not only scavenges free radicals but also protects DNA against strand breaks (Guleria et al., 2011) and has antimicrobial properties (Negi and Dave, 2010). The average height reached by the plant is approximately 15 meters. Few of the popular common names of the plant includes Black catechu, Black cutch, Catechu, Catechu tree, Cutch tree, Khair gum, Khair tree, Wadalee gum tree and cashoo. Ajna Fern Catechin is a constituent of several medicinal plants found throughout Africa such as Ficus mucuso [79], Ficus gnaphalocarpa [80], Ficus cordata (Moraceae) [81] and Khaya grandifoliola C.D.C. This plant has no children Legal Status. of Senegalia catechu) is a moderate-sized deciduous tree native from Asia which is valued for the production of tannin ("cutch") extracted from its heartwood. Reference taxon from WWW in Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Reference taxon from WWW in Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. [excluded] black cutch Classification. Senegalia catechu in Kew Science Plants of the World online.The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.Published on the internet. Rich. Statistics. A. catechu bark (methanolic and hexane) extracts have antiproliferative, cytotoxic, and anticancer properties against various cancer cell lines but does not show any effect on human peripheral lymphocytes; thus, this property can be used in designing safe anticancer drug (Nadumane and Nair, 2011). LEGUMINOSAE CAESALPINIOIDEAE Mimosoid Clade Senegalia catechu The aqueous extracts of heartwood also show antidiabetic and antinociceptive action in a dose-dependent manner (Rahmatullah et al., 2013). Welcome to the famous Dave's Garden website. sundra (Roxb.) Senegalia polyacantha (Willd.) with help from Common names for it include kher, catechu, cachou, cutchtree, black cutch, and black catechu. 17.3.1 Acacia catechu/Senegalia catechu (Distribution: Asia; Family: Fabaceae; Common Names: Cutch Tree, Black Catechu, Cachou) The heartwood and bark are used in traditional medicine to treat sore throat and diarrhea. The above illustrates the possible interactions of carcinogenic and anticarginogenic constituents in relation to human risk. It was demonstrated that catechin-like compounds were strong therapeutic candidates for protection against the cognitive decline caused by the HIV. Description. Acacia polyacantha Willd. SENEGALIA CATECHU BARK. Species recognized by EOL Dynamic Hierarchy 1.1 and EOL Dynamic Hierarchy 1.1. Family. Nomenclature and Classification. Scientific or Botanical Name Acacia Catechu Common Names Koir, Kheriya Baval, Kher Kagli, Khair, Sandra, Cutch Tree, black catechu Areca nut contains the alkaloids arecoline and arecaidine, both of which are genotoxic (Panigrahi & Rao 1984; Tsai et al 2008). Common names for it include kher, catechu, cachou, cutchtree, black cutch, and black catechu. Moreover, in the context of oral cancer, safrole has shown in vitro and in vivo antitumoral activity through apoptosis of human oral cancer HSC-3 cells, and in a mouse solid tumor xenograft model of the same cancer type (Yu et al 2011). GA occurs in two forms: methylated GAs (e.g., syringic acid) or galloyl conjugates of catechin derivatives (e.g., flanvan-3-ols, or polygalloyl esters of glucose, quinic acid or glycerol).8–10 Figure 80.1 depicts the chemical structure of GA. Robert Tisserand, Rodney Young PhD, in Essential Oil Safety (Second Edition), 2014. The conjugation of GA to linoleic acid (LA) synthetically, Octadeca-9,12-dienyl-3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate (GLE) may be a more potent compound against obesity than that of individual compounds.7. Another metabolite found in rat urine was pyrogallol, which was formed by decarboxylation of GA. Syringic acid and 3,4-dimethoxy-5-hydroxybenzoic acid were reported in urine.6 Wacher and Benet7 reported that the esters form of GA has been found to have better bioavailability. Common Name English view: view: Code System Code Type Description References; RXCUI: 1811251. The Plant List includes a further 1 scientific plant names of infraspecific rank for the genus Senegalia.We do not intend The Plant List to be complete for names of infraspecific rank. In Hindi, it is called ‘Katha’. Species recognized by EOL Dynamic Hierarchy 1.1 and EOL Dynamic Hierarchy 1.1. The Acacia Catechu is also known as Senegalia catechu. Created by admin on Sat Jul 11 08:22:00 EDT 2020, Edited by admin on Sat Jul 11 08:22:00 EDT 2020. Arathi Nair, ... Bhaskar Saha, in New Look to Phytomedicine, 2019. Hurter & Mabb., formerly known as Acacia catechu (L.) Willd., Oliv.) Through derivatives of the flavanols in its extracts, the species has lent its name to the important catechins, catechols and catecholamines of chemistry and biology. Organism - Senegalia catechu. The plant is called khair in Hindi, and kachu in Malay, hence the name was Latinized to "catechu" in Linnaean taxonomy, as the type-species from which the extracts cutch and catechu are derived. Hurter & Mabb. Transcriptomic studies also indicated that 18 could reduce atherosclerotic lesion development in apo E-deficient mice [96]. I am very much sure that Senegalia catechu , Senegalia polyacantha as well as Senegalia chundra are distinct species. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is also known in other common names such as Gum acacia, Gum arabic tree, Senegal gum, and Sudan gum arabic. Useful Tropical Plants Database 2014 by Acacia sundra (Roxb.) It is a very popular plant commonly known by the following names black catechu, black cutch, catechu, cutch, cutch tree, dark catechu, gum catechu. ]. Senegalia polyacantha (Willd.) Nomenclature and Classification . 974-89377-5-5. The plant is called khair in Hindi, and kachu in Malay, hence the name was Latinized to "catechu" in Linnaean taxonomy, as the type-species from which the extracts cutch and catechu are derived. GA and related derivatives act as natural antioxidants which are basically secondary polyphenolic metabolites. It is a medium height tree belonging to the Fabaceae family. A. catechu shows its immunomodulatory effect on both cell-mediated and humoral immunity. IUPAC name: 3, 4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid. The earliest clinical studies involve the use of Acacia catechu to treat lepromatous leprosy (Ojha et al., 1969). Senegalia senegal or Gum Arabic is a small, spiny, deciduous tree native to semidesert regions of Sub-Saharan Africa, Oman, Pakistan, and west coastal India. fleckii: named after geologist E. Fleck, who collected the type specimen in the 1800’s. Interestingly, while aqueous extracts of areca nut have been found to induce tumors in animals, aqueous betel leaf extracts either lacked tumorigenic activity or reversed tumorigenesis induced by known carcinogens (Bhide et al 1979; Rao 1984). Natural History: Guajillo is a multi-stemmed shrub that is mainly distributed in the Southwestern United States and Northeastern Mexico (1). Scientific Name Other Common Names; ACCA21: Acacia catechu (L. f.) Willd. Moreover, various parts of A. catechu extract show antimicrobial properties against a number of pathogens including Salmonella typhi (Rani and Khullar, 2004), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans (Negi and Dave, 2010), Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Shigella spp. In fact, epicatechin, EGCG (19) and other catechin flavonoids may protect against neurotoxic oxidative stress caused by the HIV-Tat protein [97]. PRIMARY view: This is a sub-concept of substance: CHL342Y4LA. GA is also found to be present in various tea formulations such as Pu-erh, Meifoo green tea, Shanghai green tea, Hangzhou Lung Ching, Jasmine, Fujian Oolong, Jiangxi Oolong and Fujian black, etc. Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment, 2013 (0 ratings) 0. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. GA content found in Pu-erh tea was the highest at 5.53 mg/g.2 Borde et al.3 reported GA in different Ayurvedic herbs and formulations: Acacia Arabica (Babool) 0.593 mg/g, Acacia catechu (Khair) 0.091 mg/g, Eugenia jambolana (Jamun) 1.094 mg/g, Terminalia chebula (Hirda) 7.144 mg/g, Terminalia belerica (Behda) 6.46 mg/g, Punica granatum (Dalimb) 1.915 mg/g, Phyllanthus emblica (Amla) 27.36 mg/g, Triphala 18.24 mg/g, and Chyavanprash 2.234 mg/g. This phytochemical is also a selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of type MAO-B, showing its ability to reduce the symptoms of Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases [99]. Compared to allopathic medications, it does not show any side effects, so recently patients are returning to natural medications. It grows best in dry, gravelly or sandy soil, and is often found on hillsides and slopes (2,4). Armelle T. Mbaveng, ... Victor Kuete, in Toxicological Survey of African Medicinal Plants, 2014. Comments have to be approved before they are shown here. Overview Information Catechu is an herb. The A. berlandieri spreads via seeds.Its ability to attract birds and butterflies has made it a popular ornamental tree. Richard Morris. & Mabberley, D.J. Hurter, P.J.H. A number of bioactive compounds are isolated from A. catechu like free radical scavenging catechin (polyhydroxylated benzoic acid), rutin, isorhamnetin (Li et al., 2011), and other compounds like epicatechin, epicatechin-3-O-gallate, epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (Stohs and Bagchi, 2015), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, ophioglonin, quercetin, afzelechin, kaempferol, 3,4′,7-trihydroxyl-3′,5-dimethoxy-flavone, epiafzelechin, mesquitol, aromadendrin, and phenol (Li et al., 2010). cinerea – ash coloured – referring to the trunk. Similar adducts were found in the liver tissue of two out of 28 Taiwanese with HC. Karamac et al.1 reported GA content in some plant extracts like Camellia sinensis L., Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L., Corylus avellana, Oenothera biennis, and Vitis vinifera L. The content ranges from 5 to 309 mg/g and the highest levels were found in tannin fraction of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L. extract. Catechu Tree Senegalia polyacantha (Willd.) Acacia catechu. Naik et al. DC. The leaves, shoots, and wood are used to make medicine. Apart from its pharmacological role, GA acid is also used commercially in tanning, ink dyes and paper-manufacturing industries.4, Shahrzad et al.5 have reported GA bioavailability results of compound (50 mg) in 10 healthy humans. – black cutch Subordinate Taxa. ex Rottler) Maslin. Common names for it include kher, catechu, cachou, cutchtree, black cutch, and black catechu. Plants play a major role in controlling diabetes from early times. Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report. ... Senegalia catechu (L. f.) P.J.H. Cola contains very small amounts of safrole, presumed to be due to the presence of nutmeg oil.12 However, there is no correlation between cola consumption and liver cancer in humans (Bosch et al 2004; accessed April 28th 2012). Senegalia chundra (Roxb. fil.) Common names for it include catechu, cachou, cutchtree, black cutch, and black catechu. The heartwood and bark are used in traditional medicine to treat sore throat and diarrhea. Some of the plants used in the treatment are: Aegle marmelos Corr (baelfruit), Azardirachta indica Ajuss (neem tree), Emblica officinalis S Gaertn (gooseberry), Mimosa pudica Linn (touch me not plant). In Assam, India, cancer of the esophagus is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in males, and ranks second for females (Phukan et al 2001). Accepted Name Black catechu ... Common Dryland Trees of Karnataka: Bilingual Field Guide. It is also know for its medicinal uses.Seeds Specifications Seeds per Packet 3000 Common Name Babul, Cachu, Catechu, Koir, Kheriya Baval, Kher Kagli, Khair, Sandra, Cutch Tree, black catechu Height Up to 15 m Flower Colour White to pale yellow Bloom Time July to August Difficulty Level Easy Planting and careAfter about six months in a nursery, the seedlings can be planted in the fieldSenegalia catechu … Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Anand A. Zanwar, ... Subhash L. Bodhankar, in Polyphenols in Human Health and Disease, 2014, Gallic acid (GA) is a common and important antioxidant that has been reported to occur in various plants such as oak bark, tea leaves, green tea, apple peels, grapes and used in polyherbal formulations such as gall nuts, sumac and wine. Acacia catechu var. (Meliaceae) [82] harvested in Cameroon, Holothuria atra (Holothuriidae) [83], Thalassodendron ciliatum (Cymodoceaceae) [84] from Egypt, Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) [85], Acalypha wilkesiana “Godseffiana” Muell Arg (Euphorbiaceae) [86] from Nigeria, Terminalia sericea (Combretaceae) [87], Peltophorum africanum (Fabaceae) [88] and Guibourtia coleosperma (Fabaceae) [89] from South Africa. Scientific Names. SUBSTANCE -> SUB_CONCEPT: none {{ more2535 == true ? (syn. Preferred Names. (Joshi et al., 2012). 2008. Natural History. The … 2020. If you would like to support this site, please consider. Momordica charanti Linn (bitter guard), Jatropha curcas Linn (biodiesel plant), Acacia catechu W&A (Leguminosae), Aerva lanata Juss (Amarantaceae), Alpinia calcarata Rosc (zingiberaceae), Benincasa hispida Thunb(Cucurbitaceae), Capsicum annum Linn (Solanaceae), Cedrus deodara Roxb(Coniferae), Coccinia indica W&A (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia jambolana Lam (Myrtaceae), Ficus gibosa BI (Moraceae), Ficus glomerata Roxb (Moraceae), Helicteres isora Linn (Sterculiaceae), Holostemma annulare K.Schum (Asclepiadaceae), Plumbago rosea Linn (Plumbaginaceae), Rubia cordifolia Linn (Rubiaceae), Salacia oblonga Wall (Hippocrateaceae), Saraca indica Linn(Leguminosae), Stroblanthus hyneanus Nees (Acanthaceae), Tinospora cordifolia Miers (Menispermaceae), Tragia involucrate Linn (Euphorbiaceae), Tribulus terrestris Linn (Zygophyllaceae), and so on. Compound 18 was reported as histidine decarboxylase inhibitor, inhibiting the conversion of histidine to histamine suggesting to have beneficial effects through reduction of potentially damaging, histamine-related local immune response [98]. Senegalia catechu is a deciduous, thorny tree which grows up to 15 m (50 ft) in height. Terminal (leaf) node. A. catechu extract produced a significant increase in the serum immunoglobulin levels, increase in the hemagglutination titer values, and decrease in the mortality ratio in mice, suggesting enhanced humoral immunity (Ismail and Asad, 2009). The tree is a source of tannins, known as 'catechu' or 'cutch', which has a wide range of uses including in medicine, as a dye and preservative, and as an ingredient of 'paan', a widely used mildly narcotic masticatory. The plant is called katha in Hindi, and kachu in Malay, hence Latin “Catechu” for this type species from which the extracts cutch and catechu are derived. Even without tobacco, betel quid is carcinogenic (Ko et al 1995; Wu MT et al 2004c). Mimosa catechu L. f. Mimosa sundra Roxb. Figure 80.1. Join our friendly community that shares tips and ideas for gardens, along with seeds and plants. Ken Fern, The reported parameters were: Tmax 1.3–1.5 hour, plasma concentration 1.8 GA +2.8 4-MeGA µmol/L, area under curve 4.3 GA +9.6 MeGA µmol h/L, urinary excretion – 36.4% of intake, and elimination half-life 1.2–1.5 hour.5 The major metabolite detected in urine from rats or rabbits after administration of GA was 4-O-methyl gallic acid, which was formed by O-methylation. It is usually available in an … The earliest clinical studies involve the use of Acacia catechu to treat lepromatous leprosy ( Ojha et al., 1969 ). NHPID Name: Senegalia catechu. Catechin (18) is a naturally occurring flavonol and a well-demonstrated antioxidant phytochemical originally derived from catechu, which is the tannic juice or boiled extract of Acacia catechu L.f (Fabaceae) [78]. ), wrapped in the leaves or flowers of Piper betle L. In India and Pakistan, tobacco is often added, though not in Taiwan or Southern China. It is likely, therefore, that antioxidant and antimutagenic constituents of betel leaf counteract the toxicity of areca nut alkaloids, and evidence of this can be found in the antagonistic effect of arecoline in relation to the chemopreventive action of clocimum oil (85–90% eugenol) in mice (Singh A et al 2000). Senegalia catechu (L. collect. The species of the genus Senegalia were considered members of the genus Acacia until 2005. ex A. Kurz. Its branches are extensively … Safrole-DNA adducts were found in the livers of mice who drank commercial cola drinks ad libitum for up to eight weeks, while they were not found in mice who drank non-cola soft drinks or water. The tree also provides a useful timber. Betel quid, or paan, is an addictive stimulant and psychoactive preparation chewed or sucked by some 600 million people in Southeast Asia. Seigler & Ebinger Show All Show Tabs catechu tree The reason why many Taiwanese quid chewers develop cancers must therefore be due to one or more other carcinogens. Related Record Type Details References; 996E9YN6SU. In 2012 an IARC report cited betel quid with or without tobacco, and areca nut, as carcinogenic to humans. Senegalia catechu is found in Asia, China, India and the Indian Ocean area. Being exported in large numbers to various parts of the world since many centuries, Acacia has been immensely significant as herb of great medicinal value. These are the plants that have the activity of controlling diabetes (Shivashankar and Mani, 2011). Chemical structure of gallic acid. Acacia campylacantha Hochst. Common name i-Synonym i-Other names i ›Acacia catechu ›Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd. SENEGALIA CATECHU BARK. Scientific Name. Natural History . If you have any useful information about this plant, please leave a comment. Mabberley's Plant-Book: A Portable Dictionary of Plants, Their Classification and Uses 1021.; Links []. Betel quid chewing is also a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HC) especially among Taiwanese quid chewers (Tsai et al 2001, 2004; Chang et al 2004). Official Name English view: view: ACACIA CATECHU BARK POWDER [INCI] Common Name English view: view: This is a sub-concept of substance: 996E9YN6SU.
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