Pesticide Science, 26(3):261-269. Prebreeding and trait development: Prebreeding should be the priority for key agronomic traits. The well-known damage caused by the infestation of brown planthoppers is hopperburn in which the rice crop are wilting and drying completely . Light planthopper infestation reduces plant height, growth vigor, and the number of productive tillers, whereas heavy infestation causes complete … Silicon suppresses insect pests such as the stem borer, brown planthopper, rice green leafhopper, and whitebacked planthopper, and non-insect pests such as leaf spider and mites. We suggest undertaking the mapping of QTLs for various agronomic traits and biotic and abiotic stresses on a larger scale. In rice, progress has been made with the introgression of major genes for improving tolerance of bacterial leaf blight, brown spot, brown planthopper, and for several other traits. Planthoppers are serious rice pests in Asia. (1987) studied the inheritance in Indian mustard and suggested the W1W1 gene symbol for non-waxiness and w1w1 gene for waxiness. Planthoppers on resistant plants spent less time feeding than planthoppers on susceptible plants, an effect that may be directly related to callose synthesis and deposition on sieve plates (Hao et al., 2008). 1991). The resistance of some varieties has proven to be more stable, notably IR36 and IR64; importantly, the resistance of these two varieties appears be governed by several minor genes in addition to the major gene Bph-1 (Alam and Cohen, 1998). Brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. ), green rice leafhopper (Nephotettix spp. Young nymphs are white, but they gradually become darker in older instars. Abstract BACKGROUND Sulfoxaflor is a new insecticide for controlling Nilaparvata lugens in the field. BV500WS is used at the early stage of paddy cultivation for … PESTICIDES INFLUENCE MALE CONTRIBUTIONS TO BROWN PLANTHOPPER REPRODUCTION; PROSPECTIVE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS; disclosure statement; literature cited; Abstract. Disease resistance is known to have been inherited as a monogenic trait following the laws of classical Mendelian genetics. The large jaws of the stem borer gnawing rice with a high Si content would wear out more easily than that gnawing rice with a low Si content. Effectiveness of biopesticides against brown planthopper (. The brown planthopper is a sucking insect that, under heavy infestations, can cause the wilting and complete drying of rice plants, a condition known as ‘hopperburn’ (Bottrell and Schoenly, 2012). These protective functions of Si may be attributed to Si deposited on the tissue surface. Mapping of QTLs: QTLs have been identified and mapped for only a few selected traits. Although severely affected by BPH, T2 was able to has comparable number of remaining tillers as C1 which was 46.24% and 49.65% respectively. PMID: 29107231. Outbreaks of brown planthopper have occurred throughout the history of rice cultivation, but outbreaks became more frequent and more intense after the introduction of improved rice varieties and input-intensive farming practices during the green revolution of the 1960s. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. A conidial suspension of this fungus with carboxymethyl cellulose sprayed on P. personata prevented secondary spread of the pathogen under moist conditions (Mitchell et al. The lack of effect of the QTL-containing segments on root length and yield may be because those QTLs were responsible for a small proportion of the total phenotypic variation (6–18%) and had not been fine-mapped. Jian Feng Ma, Eiichi Takahashi, in Soil, Fertilizer, and Plant Silicon Research in Japan, 2002. In rice, a single gene, Bph-1, conferred resistance to brown planthopper in a variety IR 26 but this broke down within 2 years. Among the most important are the, Target Receptors in the Control of Insect Pests: Part I, Karunker et al., 2009; Puinean et al., 2010, Number of the larvae bored into the rice stems. Good progress has been made in trait development for resistance to biotic stresses, such as BB, blast, BPH, and gall midge. International Pesticide Benefits Case Study No. However, due to the intensive use of insecticides to control this pest over many years, resistance to most of the classes of chemical insecticides has been reported. Most of the lines carrying the desired introgressions failed to have deeper roots than IR64 (Shen et al., 2001). A brown planthopper outbreak in 1732 affected 2.6 million persons and 12,000 died from hunger. BV500WS is used at the early stage of paddy cultivation for growth enhancement meanwhile BV612EC is used a week after the liberation of BPH for crop protection. Chemical control is still the most efficient primary way for rice planthopper control. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. In a search for parasites of Macrophomina phaseolina (synonym Rhizoctonia bataticola), Arachniotus species and Aspergillus aculeatus were found to be promising control agents (Dhingra and Khare 1973). A good example of the problem of QTL × environment can be found from the work published on the rice population CT9993/IR62266, phenotyped for grain yield under drought stress in a wide range of environments. In Varanasi, India, Colletotrichum dematium is parasitized by Acremonium sordidulum, which smothers the host and reduces its sporulation on the plant (Singh et al. The brown planthopper (BPH) causes serious damage to rice by sucking rice sap, ovipositing in rice tissues, and transmitting a number of rice diseases during its long-distance migration that severely affect the productivity of paddy. There has been significant interest to reduce reliance on pesticides by manipulating habitat plant species and communities to benefit natural enemies of insect. Some Auchenorrhyncha species are considered to be beneficial. Since several genes/QTLs have been cloned for yield component traits, priority should be given to the pyramiding of yield component QTLs for enhancing yield potential in inbreds, as well as in hybrids. The brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) is one of the most destructive pests of rice crops in Asian countries including China, Vietnam, Thailand, etc. Among the herbivorous rice insects, the brown planthopper (BPH) (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) is the most destructive pest to rice production. BPH was released twice on day 46 and 59 of paddy cultivation. Sphaeronaemella helvellae, Trichoderma viride, Exobasidiellum species, and others (Vakili 1985) are efficient antagonists of pathogens, such as Fusarium verticillioides (synonym F. moniliforme sensu stricto), Cochliobolus (Helminthosporium) carbonum, and Colletotrichum graminicola involved in stalk rot of corn. The ensuing decades saw the release of numerous other brown planthopper-resistant lines with other genes for resistance and the development of additional planthopper biotypes (Alam and Cohen, 1998; Bottrell and Schoenly, 2012). With technological advances in genome sequencing, it is now easier and faster to identify and map QTLs. Christopher H. Dietrich, in Encyclopedia of Insects (Second Edition), 2009. Biological nitrogen fixation: Breeders should explore the possibilities of enhancing BNF through endophytes. Furthermore, reducing the use of early-season insecticides, which destroy natural enemy complexes that help regulate brown planthopper populations, is probably critical for the long-term use of resistant varieties (Cohen et al., 1997). So far, emphasis has been primarily on varietal development with limited emphasis on prebreeding and trait development. Human resource development: Since genomics technologies are expanding at a faster rate, regular training of young breeders should be strengthened. To lay a foundation for nation-wide resistance management of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens-Stål, we collected 19 samples of the planthopper from 13 locations covering eight provinces to monitor the resistance to five conventional insecticides in 2010 and 2011. These responses result in an antibiosis-type resistance that dramatically reduces the feeding, survival, and population growth of planthoppers (Du et al., 2009). Cicadas are used as food by several human cultures. R. Serraj, ... R.J. Hijmans, in Advances in Agronomy, 2009. Hawksworth (1981a) gives a long list of additional mycoparasites growing on conidial fungi. Spittlebugs injure plants primarily through feeding and through transmission of xylem-limited bacterial pathogens. Such studies are not often done, presumably because of their costs and methodological difficulties (Vollrath et al., 1990; Volkmar et al., 1998, 2002, 2004). For this, IPM attempts to synchronize the timing of spraying of pesticides with the life cycle of the pests, and their natural enemies (predatory spiders and mites) (Bostanian et al., 1984; Volkmar, 1989; Volkmar and Wetzel, 1992). ), African maize leafhopper (Cicadulina spp. K. Samiayyan, in Integrated Pest Management, 2014. Economic injury to plants involving cicadas, which occurs rarely, is mainly due to oviposition, although some species occasionally inflict feeding damage (e.g., on sugarcane). The brown planthopper (BPH) causes serious damage to rice by sucking rice sap, ovipositing in rice tissues, and transmitting a number of rice diseases during its long-distance migration that severely affect the productivity of paddy. Emphasis should be given to understanding the role of soil microbes and their interaction with rice roots in promoting NUE. Flowering plants as refuge can contribute in enhancing the ecosystem services. © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. This research aims to determine the relationship between crop damages caused by BPH and insecticides use schemes. The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) is a planthopper species that feeds on rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). Nippon Noyaku Gakkaishi. In the 1960s and 1970s, during the early years of the Green Revolution, N. lugens became the number one threat to rice production in many parts of Asia (IRRI, 1979). A number of condial Ascomycota are hosts to biotrophic parasites. Penicillium funiculosum can smother various fungi in culture and thus prevent pineapple fruit diseases (Lim and Rohrbach 1980). Germplasm characterization: With genome sequencing becoming high-throughput and relatively inexpensive, the characterization of modern varieties and megavarieties, landraces, primitive cultivars, and wild species through whole genome sequencing is emphasized for the identification of desirable and rare alleles that have been left out of the main breeding programs. Efforts should be made to identify diverse genes/QTLs with different mechanisms for all these traits. This simple experiment is one of the most effective ways of showing that predators are important in keeping brown planthopper populations low. In 1897, 960,000 tons of The increased importance of the brown planthopper as a pest prompted efforts to identify sources of planthopper resistance. A considerable effort has been devoted to the mapping of root-related QTLs in rice. The body is brown, and the wings are transparent, with very conspicuous veins. 1976; Tsuneda and Skoropad 1978, 1980), which forms coils and appressoria and sometimes penetrates the host hyphae. The brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) damages and kills rice plants. mimegraphed . (1985) indicated for the first time that the trait for non-waxiness was controlled by a recessive gene. To find potential insecticidal resources is always important. As an environmentally friendly compound, … In exclusion cage experiments, cages were initially cleaned of all arthropods. Such resistant biotypes apparently developed as quickly as they did because of the high level of resistance present in ‘IR26’ and because of the simple genetic basis of the resistance. There is a need to develop NILs for each of these traits, map them, and make them available to breeders for stacking through MAS. RNAi and genome editing: These two newly emerging technologies hold promise and should be explored to enhance pest resistance and improve the quality characteristics of rice cultivars. The insect can complete as many as 12 generations in a single year in tropical areas, where it resides year-round, and fewer generations in temperate areas, where it is a migratory pest. Large-scale screening efforts at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) employing the ‘seedbox’ method described above identified a number of rice lines with very high levels of resistance to brown planthopper (Khush, 1989; Pathak, 1969). A fourth recessive gene h4 was also identified in the variety Java in Californian tests (Suneson and Noble, 1950). After 24 h, some cages were opened at bottom-most to allow predators in but keeping in the brown planthoppers. In a broader sense, designer rice refers to the directed transfer of desirable alleles at target loci while retaining the key characteristics of recipient lines, which have unique adaptability because of either wider adaptation or region-specific quality traits. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Emphasis should be given to the pyramiding of genes/QTLs with different mechanisms for resistance to/tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses. Aspergillus luchuensis and a diversity of other fungi are parasitized in India by Fusarium udum (Upadhyay et al. Azucena root-related QTLs have also been introduced into the indica variety Kalinga III, but only one of the five target QTLs had an effect on root length and none had a consistent effect on grain yield under water-limited conditions (Steele et al., 2006). Unfortunately, release of the highly resistant ‘IR26’ was followed within 3 years by the development of brown planthopper populations capable of overcoming the plant resistance. Nippon Noyaku Gakkaishi. Neonicotinoids such as imidacloprid and dinotefuran are widely used for control of this pest, and resistance to these insecticides has developed in recent years. Pestic Biochem Physiol. Effect of silica supply on the resistance of rice plants to the rice stem borer Chillo suppressalis Walker, *40 of the fourth instar larvae were incubated in each Petri dish containing 5 cut stems of various SiO2 contents. Noble and Suneson (1943) reported from the crosses of resistant variety Dawson and two susceptible varieties Poso and Bigclub, that Dawson had the dominant duplicate gene for resistance. Although rice varieties containing major genes for resistance to the brown planthopper exhibit high levels of planthopper resistance, other management practices may nonetheless be critical for the sustainable use of these varieties. Mochida O, 1978. A number of QTLs for chalkiness have been identified that should be used to improve milling and head rice recovery. In this article, we report on the status of eight insecticides resistance … Over 150 species are known vectors of economically important plant pathogens. Heinrichs and colleagues have demonstrated greater effectiveness of both insecticides and generalist predators on planthopper-resistant cultivars than on planthopper-susceptible varieties (Heinrichs, 2009). 1989); in high concentrations, the parasite inhibits the conidial germination and hyphal growth of its host, apparently through competition for nutrients.