Lombardy poplar (P. nigra) is a columnar form that is much planted. Populus deltoides ssp. The buds are conical, long, narrow, and sticky, with a strong balsam scent in spring when they open. The bark can become hard enough to cause sparks when cut with a chainsaw. Pistillate catkins at maturity are 8 to 20 cm long with rotund-ovate, tricarpellate subsessile fruits 5 to 8 mm long. Legal Status. Due to its high levels of rooting hormones, P. trichocarpa sprouts readily. Populus deltoides. Flowers may appear in early March to late May in Washington and Oregon, and sometimes as late as mid-June in northern and interior British Columbia, Idaho, and Montana. In large trees, the lower branches droop downwards. Branches can be added to potted plants to stimulate rooting.. Populus deltoides, commonly called eastern cottonwood, is a large, fast-growing, deciduous tree that typically grows 50-80’ (less frequently to 120’) tall with a broad, open-rounded shaped habit. Poplars, cottonwoods and aspens are all members of the Populus genus, and all are quite tall. & A. In the past, as many as six species were recognized, but recent trends have been to accept just three species, treating the others as subspecies of P. deltoides. Populus deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall ssp. -Cottonwoods can be either male or female. The dangling leaves clatter in the wind. Description: The cottonwood is a large, woody tree native to Kansas. Eastern cottonwood (P. deltoides), nearly 30 metres (100 feet) tall, has thick glossy leaves. You will notice the leaves have a serrated edge and the curved triangle shape tapers to a sharp, elongated point. Genus Latin Name Pronunciation: POP-yoo-lus It is a large tree, growing to a height of 30 to 50 m (98 to 164 ft) and a trunk diameter over 2 m (6.6 ft), which makes it the largest poplar species in the Americas. P. trichocarpa seedlings do not usually become established in abundance after logging unless special measures are taken to prepare the bare, moist seedbeds required for initial establishment. Cottonwood. Some of the grand old cottonwoods in the Rio Grande Valley have reached 90 feet in height, with trunks five feet across. The Fremont Cottonwood, also known as the Western Cottonwood or the Rio Grande Cottonwood, Populus fremontii, occurs in California east to Utah and Arizona and south into northwest Mexico. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. It is also grown as an ornamental tree, valued for its fast growth and scented foliage in spring, detectable from over 100 m distance. It shares common traits with eastern cottonwood… Populus trichocarpa, the black cottonwood, western balsam-poplar or California poplar, is a deciduous broadleaf tree species native to western North America. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Many species and hybrids have wood with a variety of uses, including for matches and matchboxes. The leaves and fruits of an eastern cottonwood (. Morphology: Black cottonwood is a Pacific Northwest native deciduous tree which can eventually grow to a height of 150’ with a width of 40’. Corrections? Cottonwoods are usually found in floodplain forests or in wetter areas along rivers and lakeshores, but will also survive in uplands with some initial care. It is used for timber, and is notable as a model organism in plant biology. Hibiscus tiliaceus is a species of flowering tree in the mallow family, Malvaceae, that is native to the Old World tropics. The crown is usually roughly conical and quite dense. Populus section Aigeiros is a section of three species in the genus Populus, the poplars. Scientific Name(s): Populus deltoides, other Populus species Abundance: rare What: inner bark How: raw, cooked Where: sunny fields near water When: spring, summer, fall, winter Nutritional Value: calories, vitamin C Dangers: none Medicinal Summary: Young Bark - anti-inflammatory; pain reliever; fever reducer ()Leaf Buds - pain reliever; antimicrobial, heals sprains and contusions (infused oil) west of the Cascade Range. The leaves are 7–20 cm long with a glossy, dark green upper side and glaucous, light grey-green underside; larger leaves, up to 30 cm long, may be produced on stump sprouts and very vigorous young trees. Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast. ), not the cottonwood tree.] & MacKinnon, A. Hence, it is commonly called the Chinese necklace poplar as well. As soon as spring leaf growth occurs, the cottonwood leaf beetle moves from under the bark, litter or forest debris to the host trees to feed on the leaves and twigs. These may either be gray or green in color. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. These shoots drop to the ground and may root where they fall or may be dispersed by water transport. The sequence of P. trichocarpa is that of an individual female specimen "Nisqually-1", named after the Nisqually River in Washington in the United States, where the specimen was collected. PLOS ONE, 11(5), e0155979. The wood has a light coloring and a straight grain. Considering the economic importance of wood and wood products, the availability of a tree genome was necessary. Wet bottomlands of rivers and major streams frequently provide such conditions, particularly where bare soil has been exposed or new soil laid down. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Populus deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall – eastern cottonwood. P. trichocarpa wood is light-weight and although not particularly strong, is strong for its weight. Its leaves are triangle shaped and toothed along the edge. Alamo, or Fremont cottonwood (P. fremontii), tallest of the group, is found in southwestern North America. The species also has the ability to abscise shoots complete with green leaves. In some situations, abscission may be one means of colonizing exposed sandbars. The species was imported from Alaska to Iceland in 1944 and has since become one of the most widespread trees in the country. The gum-like sap was even used as a glue or as waterproofing. Species List by Scientific Name lists all 85 plants in alphabetical order by genus and species. Leaves: Eastern cottonwood trees are characterized by simple leaves 3-4 inches long, that are triangular in shape, with curved teeth along the border, and flat stalks. P. trichocarpa has an extensive and aggressive root system, which can invade and damage drainage systems. The wood, roots and bark were used for firewood, canoe making, rope, fish traps, baskets and structures. This can be increased with cold storage. Symbol Scientific Name; POBAC3: Populus balsamifera L. var. It grows on a variety eastern cottonwood. Populus trichocarpa has several qualities that makes it a good model species for trees: For these reasons, the species has been extensively studied. One of the cultivated male varieties, “Straight Plains” or ‘Jeronimus’ cottonwood keeps a straight main leader, is tolerant of many soil types and conditions, and can make a nice shade tree in landscapes that provide enough room for this tree to mature. Seral communities dominated or codominated by cottonwood are maintained by periodic flooding or Subordinate Taxa. Black cottonwood grows on alluvial sites, riparian habitats, and moist woods on mountain slopes, at elevations of 0–2100(–2750) meters. (2016) found the first direct evidence of nitrogen fixation in the wild P. trichocarpa (a nonleguminous tree). Vancouver, British Columbia: Lone Pine Publishing, 2004. After logging operations, it sometimes regenerates naturally from rooting of partially buried fragments of branches or from stumps. conditions for establishment are met. The bark is grey and covered with lenticels, becoming thick and deeply fissured on old trees. The seed ripens and is disseminated by late May to late June in Oregon and Washington, but frequently not until mid-July in Idaho and Montana. In eastern Washington and other dry areas, it is restricted to protected The petiole is reddish. The Species List by Common Name is an alphabetical listing of woody plant species within each of the four size categories: shrubs, small trees, medium-tall trees, and conifers. The species reaches flowering age around 10 years. Rio Grande cottonwood. It is normally fairly short-lived, but some trees may live up to 400 years. U.S. Weed Information. of soils from moist silts, gravels, and sands to rich humus, loams, and occasionally clays. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/plant/cottonwood-tree, cottonwood - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), cottonwood - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Living trees are used as windbreaks. plains cottonwood. Staminate catkins contain 30 to 60 stamens, elongated to 2 to 3 cm, and are deciduous. The “delta” leaves are between 1.5” to 4” long (4 – 10 cm) and about the size at their widest part. English names variously applied to different species include poplar / ˈpɒp.lər /, aspen, and cottonwood. Where seedlings become established in great numbers, they thin out naturally by age five because the weaker seedlings of this shade-intolerant species are suppressed. The wide range of topics studied by using P. trichocarpa include the effects of ethylene, lignin biosynthesis, drought tolerance, and wood formation. Populus trichocarpa, the black cottonwood, western balsam-poplar or California poplar, is a deciduous broadleaf tree species native to western North America. The native range of P. trichocarpa covers large sections of western North America. recently disturbed alluvium.  It can reach suitable size for pulp production in 10–15 years and about 25 years for timber production. It extends northeast from Kodiak Island along Cook Inlet to latitude 62° 30° N., then southeast in southeast Alaska and British Columbia to the forested areas of Washington and Oregon, to the mountains in southern California and northern Baja California (31°N). narrowleaf cottonwood. Doty, S. L., Sher, A. W., Fleck, N. D., Khorasani, M., Bumgarner, R. E., Khan, Z., ... & DeLuca, T. H. (2016). Due to its large size, weak wood, and penetrating roots, it is best used on large properties away from residential areas. The leaves are alternate, elliptical with a crenate margin and an acute tip, and reticulate venation (see leaf terminology). Eastern cottonwood is a large, fast-growing tree found growing along streams, rivers, and lowland areas. The plant belongs to Salicaceae or Willow family. Populus deltoides, the eastern cottonwood or necklace poplar, is a cottonwood poplar native to North America, growing throughout the eastern, central, and southwestern United States as well as the southern Canadian prairies, the southernmost part of eastern Canada, and northeastern Mexico. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Cottonwood The 1972 Legislature named the cottonwood (Populus deltoides marsh) as the state tree. … Populus is a genus of 25–30 species of deciduous flowering plants in the family Salicaceae, native to most of the Northern Hemisphere. Cottonwood … It is also found inland, generally on the west side of the Rocky Mountains, in British Columbia, western Alberta, western Montana, and northern Idaho. italica] cottonwood. Each capsule contains many minute seeds with long, white, cottony hairs. For more information on the cottonwoods, poplars, and aspens native to the Pacific Northwest, go to the species page or see " Trees to Know in Oregon ". The Cottonwood seeds are attached to structures that resemble tufts of cotton and this allows the seeds to spread over long distances in the wind before settling to ground. Leaves are alternate.  Because of its salicin content, it was used raw or in salves to treat various ailments. Doty et al. Like some other species in the genus Populus, they are commonly known as cottonwoods.  The stem is grey in the older parts and light brown in younger parts.  A cottonwood in Willamette Mission State Park near Salem, Oregon, holds the national and world records. The name refers to the cottony filaments attached to the seeds that are bore in catkins. Last measured in April, 2008, this black cottonwood was found to be standing at 155 ft (47 m) tall, 29 ft (8.8 m) around, with 527 points.. Scientific Name: Family: Salicaceae Genus: Populus Species: deltoides "Siouxland" Hardiness Zone: 3 to 9 Height: 70 to 80 ft Width: 40 ft Description: Siouxland poplar, a "cotton-less cottonwood" was introduced by South Dakota State University. Although highly viable, longevity of P. trichocarpa seed under natural conditions may be as short as two weeks to a month. wislizeni. Populus angustifolia. white poplar. A hybrid between this and Eurasian black poplar ( P. nigra) is P. canadensis. Populus deltoides. Sometimes, the roots can even damage the foundations of buildings by drying out the soil. common cottonwood. It grows up to elevations of 2100 m. P. trichocarpa has been one of the most successful introductions of trees to the otherwise almost treeless Faroe Islands. Populus balsamifera. Omissions? It is used for timber, and is notable as a model organism in plant biology. That species is the cottonwood tree. It often forms Populus fremontii, commonly known as Cottonwood is a fast-growing deciduous tree native to riparian zones of the Southwestern United States and northern through central Mexico.