Research Paper: Anxiety Disorders Stephanie Hathaway Liberty University Abstract Anxiety Disorders are characterized by many symptoms and often associated with depressive tendencies. If you need a thorough research paper written according to all the academic standards, you can always turn to our experienced writers for help. Furthermore, it is supposed that anxiety can be conditioned not only to physical events, such as snakes and spiders, but also to mental events, such as thoughts and images. According to the two-stage theory, a neutral event comes to trigger anxiety if it has been experienced along with an event that itself causes anxiety. Explore a big database【WITH NO SIGN UP】– 100% FREE Social Anxiety Essay Examples All popular types of essays Argumentative, Persuasive, Analysis & Research Papers. social anxiety disorder (SAD) might negatively affect the patient’s daily functions in the long run (Beesdo-Baum et al., 2012). Jerome Kagan and his colleagues have demonstrated that there are individual differences in the level of anxiety, inhibition, and physiological reactivity that are apparent at infancy. Hire writer now. This sample anxiety research paper features: 4000 words (approx. There is a subspecialty of psychology: psychophysiology, which is devoted to psychological theorizing founded in physiological assessment. Panic disorder: A critical analysis. Traditional psychometric approaches classify anxiety into state (transitory feelings) and trait (stable personality) attributes. … Freud also described moral anxiety, arising from an impending or actual violation of internalized standards. However, some fears more especially characterize certain stages of development. It also does not explain the particular ease with which some fears, like taste aversions, are learned and maintained. This research paper on Social Anxiety Disorder was written and submitted by your fellow student. If you need help writing your assignment, please use our research paper writing service and buy a paper on any topic at affordable price. Nearly one in … According to this idea, understanding the function of a state is a good start toward understanding whether that state is emotional in nature. Special offer! An advantage of direct monitoring of physiological functioning is that the data do not rely on the self-observational accuracy of the subject, but rather, on the quality of the measurement methods and monitoring equipment. A balanced analysis would weigh the potential disadvantages of a particular expression of anxiety against those of its suppression. Definition. This are what are normally referred to as panic attack. This classification is based on both theoretical and practical considerations, and reflects contemporary thinking. Feel free to contact our writing service for professional assistance. Eysenck, H. (1992). With more practice, the idea of threat and the physical reaction may also change. 12/8/2015. Page 1 of 50 - About 500 essays. A sample of these anxiety inducing medical conditions is shown in Table 2. Furthermore, in the third world countries, somatic symptoms appear to be the prevalent mode of anxious expression. Kindergartners develop fears such as separation from parents, bodily harm, animals, and sleeping alone. This learning to escape and avoid is the second stage of the hypothesized two-stage process: instrumental, or “operant,” conditioning. Sigmund Freud (1856–1939), the founder of psychoanalysis in the late nineteenth century, is credited with explication of the role of anxiety in affecting people’s daily lives. In sum, although there are individuals in all cultures that seem anxious, the foci of anxiety and worry, and the attributions of causes of anxiety, are diverse. The 12-month prevalence of SAD is around B Research Paper: Social Anxiety Study Based on Coping Styles and Attachment Styles CrossMark Citation: Tamannaeifar, M., & … About 13% of … Anxiety the cognitive perspective. There is good evidence that some people are genetically predisposed to be more anxiety-reactive than others. One typical anxiety response is a sense of choking or constriction, felt as a lump in the throat. In doing so, you will be able to write the best outline, introduction, and conclusion for an anxiety essay. These are the cognitive, physiological, and behavioral response systems. Usually, anxiety is a crucial part of what makes us humans since individuals tend to become anxious over things that they care most about such as health, ability to … Some 18 percent of the adult U.S. population experiences anxiety symptoms to the extent that they can be diagnosed as suffering from an anxiety disorder. It is suggested that the growth in research is due to anxiety being regarded as one of the most prominent and pervasive emotions, causing distress and negatively affecting large numbers of people. Fear and Anxiety are clearly covering, aversive, actuated states focused on risk. research paper topics japan. Most experts agree that there are three partially integrated response systems that account for the various symptoms and therefore make up the full experience of anxiety. Seekers of treatments for anxiety should be cautious about treatment providers who are unwilling to explain the advantages and disadvantages of alternative treatments, including the strength of the evidence for and against each treatment. This sample Anxiety Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. and (3) Should one try to control anxiety and if so should one use medication or psychotherapy? For example, through gradual approach, an individual who is afraid of insects can handle some insects and reduce the fear. Such hypervigilance could impede, rather than enhance, the organism’s survivability, by interfering with essential activities. In certain cases, when these unexpected panic attacks occur outside the home, people become fearful that another attack might strike if they go out again. Because of evidence that both person and environment are important in understanding anxiety, it has become commonplace to suggest that an interaction between stressors in the environment with predispositions (or diatheses) in the person cause anxiety. Research paper for english grammar, essay about listening skills essay on technology and human, essay on sonia gandhi in english, how long is sat with essay take, immigrants coming to america essay. Another example of a dimensional approach is Mehrabian and Russell’s three orthogonal axes: (1)valence (pleasant vs. unpleasant); (2)arousal (excited vs. relaxed); and (3) dominance (controlling vs. controlled). There has been much argument among philosophers, psychologists, and other theoreticians about the nature of emotion itself. Furthermore, what seems to run in families is a vulnerability to develop some kind of anxiety, rather than to develop a specific disorder. Although the majority are produced in a person based off of their genetic material, other influences exist environmentally that can encourage or discourage the severity of the symptoms and … Also check our tips on how to write a research paper, see the lists of research paper topics, and browse research paper examples. If we agree that anxiety is an emotion, then anxiety is that kind of thing. Furthermore, the objects of anxiety differ among the sexes. Because anxiety can interfere with an individual’s functioning it is sometimes desirable to reduce it. This phenomenon has been termed experimental neurosis, and can also be produced by punishment of appetitive behavior, and by long periods of restraint and monotony. Special offer! Read this Psychology Research Paper and over 89,000 other research documents. Fears common in adolescence include anxiety related to social interactions, physical health, sexual matters, and political and social concerns. Essay of long distance relationship Apa paper research anxiety on, paryavaran sanrakshan essay in marathi. When they become so fearful of having another attack that they cannot leave their home or safe haven, they are diagnosed as having panic disorder with agoraphobia. They are accompanied by … Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates. Cbt essay anxiety for diabetes type 1 case study 5: Constructing cbt essay anxiety a research paper I 375 figure 10. Anxiety can develop at any time in the individual’s life span. A number of methods of assessing anxiety are available, and each has advantages and disadvantages. Anxiety is a natural and essential emotion that every human being experiences in life. Promo code: cd1a428655, Domestic Violence Research Paper Examples, Political Science Research Paper Examples. Another influential theory of anxiety emphasizes the anxiogenic role of uncontrollability and unpredictability. Research Essays; Rhetorical Essays; Satire Essays; Synthesis Essays; Show All; Admission Essays; Haven`t found the right essay? New York: Guilford Press. Freud postulated three types of anxiety. Psychology research paper topics often have some relationship to anxiety disorders. Another way of understanding genetic influence is through comparisons of identical (monozygotic) twins, who have identical genetic makeup, and dizygotic twins, who have similar upbringing but different genetic makeup. For example, Beck and his colleagues have hypothesized that unrealistic expectations and attitudes, represented as cognitive “schemas,” predispose a person to emotional distress. Many Artists portrayed anxiety in their artwork. From 1 to 3 years of age children develop other fears, including fears of darkness, injury, and animals. As a rule, if anxiety interferes with routine functioning (e.g., work, social life, leisure) and persists when there is minimal real threat, then it is considered pathological. There are also sex differences in response to interpersonal threat situations, with women more likely to respond with anxiety, and men with anger. It has become conventional in psychology to construe anxiety as a state that serves to escape or avoid danger. Many theories about various aspects of anxiety have been proposed, but there is no generally accepted comprehensive explanation. Differences exist between men and women in felt anxiety: women report more anxiety. In 1990 it was discovered that anti-depressant type drugs can be us for treating anxiety. Anxiety Disorder Research Paper Download. The emotion of anxiety is in many ways similar to fear, although fear is typically defined as an emotional reaction to a clearly identifiable threat, such as a charging elephant or the possibility of falling when leaning over the edge of a tall building. This social anxiety is particularly prevalent among adolescents, who worry that they might be scrutinized by others and be found lacking in appearance, skills, or behavior. Two classes of drugs are known to be effective in treating some anxiety disorders. For example, number of errors during a 5-minute typing test could be used as a performance indicator of anxiety. Some researchers believe that psychological and biological interventions can change vulnerability to anxiety, but this issue remains controversial. The person might experience persistent, frightening thoughts and images as flashbacks to the original trauma. essay precis writing and comprehension examples; essays on hope in the unseen; essay public speaking class. This difference is evident in children as well as in adults. Browse other research paper examples for more inspiration. Parts of an apa essay, short essay on being helpful. For example, Lazarus suggests that interpretation of threat is as important as the triggering event in causing stress. Tuma, A. H., & Maser, J. Accordingly, unpleasant events feel much worse and have more lasting effects if they are unpredictable and uncontrollable. By Lee Adcock. According to Freud, the ego keeps its instinctual sources of threat out of conscious awareness so that the true source of neurotic anxiety remains obscure and is experienced as “free-floating” or unattached anxiety. (1994). Examples of these antianxiety drugs are listed in Table 3. Although a common response to unpleasant feelings is to try to control them, some theorists have proposed that attempts to suppress negative emotions can result in somatic problems, such as ulcers, asthma, arthritis, urticaria, and so on. Is emotion mental or physical? However, for those whose anxiety is severe enough to be diagnosed as an anxiety disorder, the experience of anxiety is chronic, debilitating, and interferes with personal, social, and occupational functioning. Finally, in the third phase, exhaustion, irreversible damage or death may result if the source of stress is not removed. View Speaking Anxiety Research Papers on for free. New York: Guilford Press. Our leading custom writing service provides custom written papers in 80+ disciplines. Biological theories of anxiety emphasize the role of the nervous system in anxiety. The concept of anxiety can be further broken down into two distinct aspects: trait and state. For example, Watts and his colleagues have argued that the way people pay attention to, remember, and interpret threat-relevant information is a crucial determinant of anxiety. architecture research dissertation; how to create a thesis template in word. Free research papers are not written to satisfy your specific instructions. B. Together, the various genetic studies point to a component of heritability for anxiety. This is a variant of the broader question of whether it is healthier to express or suppress emotions. One way of trying to understand it is by what function it serves, for example, to prepare to escape or avoid harm. The effective therapeutic processes in cognitive-behavioral therapy include helping patients alter negative anticipatory thoughts that often trigger anxiety symptoms and helping them confront their feared situations directly, which allows the anxiety symptoms to dissipate. Because our approach is to view anxiety as a state that serves to escape or avoid danger, an essential element of an anxiety state must be a perception of danger by the organism. Anxiety is a routine part of human existence but is incompletely understood. If this genetic advantage is passed on to one’s offspring, then anxiety should be especially prevalent in relatives of anxious individuals. These questions may at first seem arcane, but their answers can help us think more clearly about more practical questions, like: (1) How can you tell if someone is anxious? Environmental, agoraphobic, and animal phobias are more common among women, whereas fears of social situations, bodily injury, and illness are approximately equal among men and women. For example, it has been suggested that anxiety can be conceptualized as a combination of fear, guilt, and anger. Examples of each are described in Table 1. Essay on gender pay gap essay on life without technology, uk essay on obesity medical career research paper give 5 examples of case study. For example, a clinician who believes that biochemical abnormalities cause anxiety might favor pharmacotherapy with anxiolytic medicine. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. Expression versus Suppression of Anxiety. Accordingly, there are three phases in the reaction to stress. He called a reaction to a real or potential threat reality anxiety, whereas anxiety generated within the psychic apparatus as a threat to the ego was called neurotic anxiety. For example, in China, medical treatments of emotional disorders are less successful than they are in Western cultures because of the belief that familial separation is the cause of emotional problems. Anxiety disorders are among the most successfully treated of all mental disorders. Anxiety about physical health attains more prominence in the elderly. Public speaking, using public restrooms, and eating in public are among the more common social phobia situations. It is generally agreed that anxiety is a fundamental human emotion. Research paper topics on depression and human psychology. We can custom-write anything as well! McNally, R. J. Anxiety Disorders research papers discuss the types of psychological disorders characterized by fear and apprehension. Studies of l4 aca- demic vocabulary is to write and publish a scientific paper special cases perhaps the content more than one dependent variable. Furthermore, Gray suggested that individual differences in anxiety stem from differences in the activation of the behavioral inhibition system and that these differences are determined genetically. Running Head: Anxiety & Stress 2 Around the world there are few symptoms and disorders that have an effect on each and every person walking the earth. 11/25/2015. The sense of danger could be very specific, like “there is a tiger about to tear out my esophagus,” or rather vague, like “something seems to be wrong.” We call this sense of danger “threat meaning” and think that it must be part of any state that counts as anxiety. The …. A limitation of this sort of cognitive theory is that it does not specify what expectations and attitudes distinguish different emotions, such as fear versus anger or sadness. Anxious people often feel as if something bad were about to happen to them, although they might be unable to identify an immediate threat. Disadvantages are that people act very differently in different circumstances, so it is difficult to obtain a representative sampling of behavior, and watching a person during an action often influences the target behavior, so that the observation process itself distorts the obtained behavioral sample. Analysis of Theories of Fear and Anxiety . Anxiety is a generalized term that expresses the fear and worry of a person in addition to the effect on their ability to perform everyday activities (National Institute of Mental Health, 2018). Journal of Anxiety Disorders is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes research papers dealing with all aspects of anxiety disorders for all age groups (child, adolescent, adult and geriatric). For example, elevated levels of panic have been found in relatives of individuals with panic disorder. Although animal models do not illuminate every feature of anxiety, they can probably explain some of the more prominent features. It is a biological and philosophical function of instinct, reason, personality, and culture. The predisposition could itself be environmentally caused, or it could be inherited. Introduction. Removal Request If you are the copyright owner of this paper and no longer wish to have your work published on IvyPanda. Another idea that has garnered empirical support is that the function of anxiety is to warn others about danger, particularly via facial expressions. Animals experience distress in threatening situations, and this has been compared to anxiety in humans. Anxiety merits treatment if it is severe, persistent, and disabling. Request the removal Post navigation. Other consequences of the constant worry and accompanying physical tension are gastrointestinal distress, insomnia, headache, high blood pressure, hyperventilation, nausea, and fatigue. Our approach here derives from the contemporarily influential idea that emotions are functional states. Also, self-report provides a relatively economical method of assessment, and can often be done by questionnaire. In the general population, common fears include, snakes, spiders, heights, flying, blood, and dentists. Another type of cognitive theory supposes that certain styles of thinking, for example, overestimating of threat, are involved in pathological anxiety, and that the perception of threat is an important determinant of anxiety. For example, fears of heights, of loss of physical support, and of loud noises are common in infancy, but fear of strangers develops between 6 and 12 months. Once fear of a previously neutral situation is acquired in this way, methods of escape or avoidance are attempted, and successful methods are learned and maintained. Watson and Tellegan have proposed one dimension anchored by excitement/elation at one point and drowsy/dull at the other and another dimension anchored by distress/fear at one end and relaxation/calm at the other. Such concordance is higher in monozygotic twins. During the first phase, the alarm reaction, the activity in the autonomic nervous system increases. Anxiety disorders are a common condition among many people all over the world. Disadvantages of physiological assessment are not only the technical burdens, but more fundamentally, the multiplicity of physiological determinants. Mobilization of an organism to take actions to avoid harm can be a function that enhances survivability. They both include serious negative sentiments and solid substantial indications. State anxiety refers to an individual’s anxious feeling at a given time: “Are you anxious right now?” Trait anxiety refers to one’s state of anxiety in general: “Are you an anxious person?” State anxiety is more akin to fear as a response to a specific situation, whereas trait anxiety is part of one’s overall personality. Depression and anxiety research paper. That is, emotions are states of the organism that can best be understood according to their functions. Samples 181. Ever since, special clinics have been introduced in order to help deal with anxiety disorders. Home — Essay Samples — Health — Anxiety — Anxiety: Causes, Symptoms And My Personal Experience. This means that genetic makeup provides a limited explanation of vulnerability to anxiety disorder. (1985). Antianxiety drugs, primarily benzodiazepines, can reduce anxiety and panic symptoms but they have the serious drawback of physical dependency if taken for extended periods. Anxiety is routinely construed as a stress reaction, and it is generally understood that environmental stressors affect physical well-being. Despite the limitations of the basic two-stage theory, it maps well onto certain observations about the maintenance of phobic avoidance and escape. As mentioned above, individuals are often inconsistent in their observations of themselves, and the usefulness of their reports depends heavily on their limited powers of self-observation. Measurement of each system has advantages and disadvantages. To facilitate these processes, training in cognitive coping skills and deep relaxation are typically included in a cognitivebehavioral therapy treatment protocol. common essay prompts for college. Thus, a person could perceive danger but not be consciously aware of this “threat meaning.” It follows that an anxious person may or may not recognize a perception of danger involved in the anxious state. Anxiety is the uncomfortable feeling of dread that occurs in response to extreme or prolonged periods of stress (Smeltzer and Bare, 2000). Anxiety is a universally experienced emotion felt as an unpleasant, tense anticipation of an impending but vague threat. Psychologists affirm that anxiety to signal through a series of worry, fear and this alerts them that danger or sudden, frightening change is … Specific phobias are morbid and irrational (relative to the potential for actual danger) fear reactions to specific objects and situations. Particular treatments have been found especially helpful for particular types of anxiety, so it is important to obtain a treatment that has been found to match the type of difficulty experienced. You can use our professional writing services to buy a custom research paper on any topic and get your high quality paper at affordable price. A number of psychometrically sophisticated scales are available to measure anxiety, and many are in the form of questionnaires. Self-report indicators of anxiety require introspective description of feelings. This is our working hypothesis about the function of anxiety. Cognitive psychology experiments have well established that there are both conscious and unconscious perceptual processes, and that perception of danger can be unconscious. For example, it fails to account for the disproportionately high frequency of certain fears (e.g., snakes and spiders) among humans, compared to, say, phobias about electric sockets. Methods of assessing anxiety include interviewing, questionnaires, physiological monitoring, and observations of behavior. We offer high-quality assignments for reasonable rates. increase in research on anxiety. This is an example of the often observed desynchrony among different aspects of anxiety. Prevalence of anxiety in writing research report among graduate students in faculties of education in Nigeria, particularly Rivers State cannot be overemphasized; it has led to barriers in completing theses and dissertation. Computer Assisted Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Provides Little Or No Benefits For Depression, study finds. Another common source of anxiety is concern over what other people might think of you. Generalized anxiety disorder involves a chronic state of worry, apprehension, and anticipation of possible disaster, no matter how unlikely it is that the disaster will occur. A subfield of psychology called psychometrics concerns the technology of measurement, and includes techniques to enhance the usefulness of self-report data. These methods focus on increasing the consistency, that is, reliability, and accuracy, that is, validity of self-report data, and involve using mathematical statistics to develop selfreport scales. As noted earlier, anxiety is believed to have survival value because it prepares the organism to avoid harm. The implication of this particular view is that a thorough assessment entails measurement of the three systems. The most established method for reducing excessive fear is by confronting the feared situation. A disadvantage is that subjects are often inconsistent in their observations of themselves, and the usefulness of their report depends heavily on their limited powers of self-observation. Note that there need not be any actual danger, but only the perception of danger. This is how your paper can get an A! Thus, our concept of anxiety is inextricably wed to our understanding of the nature of emotion itself. Another approach is to analyze emotions according to their position along certain basic dimensions. Anxiety term papers available at, the largest free term paper community. The method is to compare their concordance for anxiety, that is, to compare the number of each type of twin pair who both have anxiety. Anxiety is seen as one of the most common disorders and can be prevalent within elementary school children. There personal history lends them to unique perspective about this issue. Anxiety Fear Feeling 2 Pages . For example, when animals are forced to make difficult choices between danger and safety signals, they show agitation, restlessness, distraction, hypersensitivity, muscle tension, and stomach ulcers.