Leadership matters. They might replace some administrative meeting time with teacher planning time, for example.23 The importance of collaboration gets backing from the Minnesota-Toronto researchers, too. "He couldn't tell you what you were teaching or how you were teaching, but he could tell you what time you arrived at school every morning. Finding ways for the perspectives of teachers and other members of the school community to be shared - as a basis for problem solving, as a basis for school improvement planning - is really important. For example, Hensley paired struggling 1st, 2nd and 3rd graders with National Board-certified teachers who gave them intensive help in reading and writing until they reached grade level. "It's about teachers. A teacher-leader, in addition to daily teaching of students, takes on a leadership role to improve instructional practices across a whole school whether it is an elementary, middle, or high school. "You can see why if a principal gives a physics teacher a ‘requires action,' that teacher is going to want to know why, and then a principal has to explain not only why but specifically how to improve," Bonti said. "Success" could be defined as entry-level manufacturing work for students who had followed a "general track," and low-skilled employment for dropouts. If the states and districts can do the difficult work of coordinating their various efforts, so much the better.45. The following are some examples of community leadership carried out by leaders who have formal positions or titles. Educational management is a field of study and practice concerned with the operation of educational organizations. A central part of being a great leader is cultivating leadership in others. She cited as an example a principal who takes steps to boost student morale during the important Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT). Leadership for Learning Improvement in Urban Schools, Bradley S. Portin, Michael S. Knapp, Scott Dareff, Sue Feldman, Felice A. Russell, Catherine Samuelson and Theresa Ling Yeh, University of Washington, 2009. A teacher plays a majorly important role in a community, offering students guidance and sometimes being the first adult in a child’s life to show interest in their goals. Their informal visits or observations in classrooms were usually not for instructional purposes. Research behind VAL-ED (the Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education tool to assess principal performance, developed by researchers at Vanderbilt University) suggests that there are six key steps - or "processes" - that the effective principal takes when carrying out his or her most important leadership responsibilities: planning, implementing, supporting, advocating, communicating and monitoring.40 The school leader pressing for high academic standards would, for example, map out rigorous targets for improvements in learning (planning), get the faculty on board to do what's necessary to meet those targets (implementing), encourage students and teachers in meeting the goals (supporting), challenge low expectations and low district funding for students with special needs (advocating), make sure families are aware of the learning goals (communicating), and keep on top of test results (monitoring).41.