Experience suggests, however, that incumbents tend to ‘cram’ what could have otherwise been a disruptive innovation into their existing market, effectively shaping it into a sustaining innovation and neutralizing any disruptive potential (Ahlstrom, 2015; Christensen, 2006; Christensen and Raynor, 2003, pp. One set of, studies compiled data on 48 ventures launched as part of Intel’s internal corpo-, rate venturing program; blind to actual outcomes, the researchers developed hy-, potheses intended to predict the new ventures’ successes or failures. �@ (�����qD���'�+��M*�p �����c.��eq �r. %%EOF Third, researchers have only tentatively spec-, ified the kinds of technologies and business models that spur dramatic change, in performance trajectories in existing markets (Raynor, 2011a; W, Christensen, 2012). Left to their own devices, steamship builders honed the new technology for years. Firms make strategic choices to position an innovation in a disruptive, way—most often by targeting non-consumers in new markets. The study notes that a common feature underlying the ability of these organizations to generate high impact is the creation of tailored ecosystems. where motion in the absence of wind was highly valued (Christensen, 1997, p. 86). All rights reserved. Research on business, ecosystems has begun to explore similar challenges of relying upon traditional, metrics in network-based industries (Altman and T, novel metrics, researchers stand to contribute to disruptive innovation theory and. search on the topic garners frequent citations by academics. 0000013728 00000 n 0000042323 00000 n substitution is shaped by the evolution of both the new and the old technologies, as well as the evolution of the ecosystems in which they are each embedded. 0000004379 00000 n Incumbent sailing ship manufacturers incorporated the new tech, nology by introducing hybrid ocean transports (sailing ships that integrated steam, power) to improve near-port navigation. Here, systemic industries in which network-centric businesses, are emerging may provide insight on where performance trajectories change sub-, specifying the nature and influence of such ‘extendable cores’ concretely, was not a technology problem; it was a business model problem, Consistent with these revisions, business models, especially incumbent firms’, profit formulas, may constitute an underappreciated driver of disruption (Kapoor, that helps a firm make more money in the same way it is already structured to, ers rely on to gauge success—attracts capital to the business. They may be, for instance, smaller, model was that existing customers and established profit models constrain es-, tablished firms’ investments in new innovations; thus, investments unattractive, to incumbents may be attractive to entrants who lack many (or any) customers, and enjoy fewer competing investment opportunities. Scholars can profitably build on this promising work by conducting careful em-, pirical analyses that links the features of these strategies to market outcomes and, compares the various strategies’ effectiveness. 0000005520 00000 n (2001) observed a similar dynamic in the medical professions and Abbott (1988) in the professions mor, discount hotel chains are on a disruptive path, which thr, Discount chains’ business models enable them to profitably serv, (2011a) elaborates that for these hotels, “the only way to ha, only way to have a better concierge is to hire a bett, entrants.” Crowne Plaza (an upscale hotel chain initiated b, Altm an, E. J., Nagle, F. and Tushman, M. L . In the late 1990s, Clayton Christensen coined the term “disruptive innovation.” It was heralded as a way to smash through the tendency for slow, incremental, and supposedly “safe” change.
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