I knew it was there, but I didn't feel it."[21]. She was featured in the 2017 film Hidden figures . [20] In keeping with state racial segregation laws, and federal workplace segregation introduced under President Woodrow Wilson in the early 20th century, Johnson and the other African-American women in the computing pool were required to work, eat, and use restrooms that were separate from those of their white peers. Katherine was also responsible for sending many others to the moon. [51] Mattel announced a Barbie doll in Johnson's likeness with a NASA identity badge in 2018. In ihrem zweiten Jahr bot ihr ihr Dozent, Dr. William W. Schieffelin Claytor, weiterführende Kurse in höherer Mathematik an, um ihr zu helfen, in die Forschung zu gehen,[6] und Johnson belegte als einzige Schülerin Analytische Geometrie. The facility officially opened its doors on September 22, 2017. Nach ihrer Pensionierung nahm sie nach wie vor an Veranstaltungen teil und blieb in Kontakt mit Schulen und Universitäten, wo sie Schüler und Studenten ermutigte, Naturwissenschaften zu studieren und entsprechende Berufe zu ergreifen. From a young age, Johnson enjoyed mathematics and could easily solve mathematical equations. So Ted left Pearson with no choice; I finished the report and my name went on it, and that was the first time a woman in our division had her name on something. … [3] Auch als Apollo 13 nach der Explosion eines Treibstofftanks und des dadurch erzwungenen Abschaltens des Navigationscomputers unplanmäßig zur Erde zurückkehren musste, stellte Johnson die Berechnungen für den Rückweg an. Februar 2020 in Newport News, Virginia[1]) war eine US-amerikanische Mathematikerin afroamerikanischer Abstammung. Februar 2020 in Newport News, Virginia ) war eine US-amerikanische Mathematikerin afroamerikanischer Abstammung. [11], After graduating from high school at 14, Johnson enrolled at West Virginia State, a historically black college. [34], She was a member of Carver Memorial Presbyterian Church for 50 years. Katherine Johnson, part of a small group of African-American women mathematicians who did crucial work at NASA, in 1966. Credit... NASA/Donaldson Collection, via Getty Images The 1957 launch of the Soviet satellite Sputnik changed history—and Johnson’s life. She led the way for women in not only NACA and NASA, but in STEM, to explore and create amazing discoveries about the world we live in. It was staffed by white male engineers. She was cited as a pioneering example of African-American women in STEM. I was working with Ted Skopinski and he wanted to leave and go to Houston ... but Henry Pearson, our supervisor – he was not a fan of women – kept pushing him to finish the report we were working on. Katherine Johnson, one of the African American women whose stories received global attention in the best-selling book and blockbuster movie, “Hidden Figures,” has turned 101. Ihr Direktor, Sherman H. Gus, begleitete sie oft auf dem Heimweg und lehrte sie Sternkonstellationen, was ihr Interesse für Astronomie weckte. In the early days of NASA women were not allowed to put their names on the reports – no woman in my division had had her name on a report. Her dad Joshua moved the family 120 miles to Institute, West Virginia for her to attend high school. [26] In 1961, her work helped to ensure that Alan Shepard's Freedom 7 Mercury capsule would be found quickly after landing, using the accurate trajectory that had been established. Because Greenbrier County did not offer public schooling for African-American students past the eighth grade, the Colemans arranged for their children to attend high school in Institute, West Virginia. Zur US-amerikanischen Ruderin siehe, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Katherine Johnson: The Girl Who Loved to Count, Katherine Johnson honored with Bench in Downtown Hampton, Familie droht wegen Frida-Kahlo-Barbie mit Klage, https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Katherine_Johnson&oldid=200776953, Ehrendoktor einer Universität in den Vereinigten Staaten, Träger der Goldenen Ehrenmedaille des Kongresses, „Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike“, Johnson, Katherine G.; Coleman, Katherine (Geburtsname); Goble, Katherine, US-amerikanische Mathematikerin afroamerikanischer Abstammung, 1967: NASA Lunar Orbiter Spacecraft and Operations Team award. Juni 2020 um 08:34 Uhr bearbeitet. [4] When NASA used electronic computers for the first time to calculate John Glenn's orbit around Earth, officials called on Johnson to verify the computer's numbers; Glenn had asked for her specifically and had refused to fly unless Johnson verified the calculations. Klasse abgebrochen hatte, legte großen Wert auf die Bildung seiner Kinder. Durch ihre Kenntnisse in analytischer Geometrie machte Johnson sich schnell unentbehrlich für ihre neuen Kollegen, die nach Ablauf der Frist „vergaßen, mich wieder abzugeben“. She made important contributions to the United States space program during her career at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). [3], Sie übersprang ein weiteres Mal eine Klasse, als zu Beginn ihres fünften Schuljahres eine neue, kleine Schule mit nur wenigen Lehrern eröffnet wurde. [3][4][5][6] She was the youngest of four children. Her calculations were also essential to the beginning of the Space Shuttle program, and she worked on plans for a mission to Mars. According to an oral history archived by the National Visionary Leadership Project: At first she [Johnson] worked in a pool of women performing math calculations. 101 years old Katherine Coleman Goble Johnson was an American mathematician whose orbital mechanics calculations as a NASA employee were critical to the success of the first and subsequent crewed spaceflights in the United States. Katherine Johnson blazed trails, not just as a black female mathematician during the Cold War, but by mapping literal paths through outer space. Katherine graduated high school at age 14 Institute. "[28] Later in her career, Johnson worked on the Space Shuttle program, the Earth Resources Satellite,[1][26] and on plans for a mission to Mars. NACA disbanded the colored computing pool in 1958 when the agency was superseded by NASA, which adopted digital computers. August 1918 in White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia; † 24. Feb 1, 1930 . Ihre Aufgabe bestand darin, Daten aus Windkanalexperimenten mit Hilfe mathematischer Formeln zu berechnen und grafisch darzustellen. ", "Katherine Johnson, real-life subject of 'Hidden Figures' receives standing ovation at Oscars", "Q&A: Our interview with Katherine G. Johnson, the real-life mathematician who inspired 'Hidden Figures, Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, "William and Mary commencement sends graduates out on new adventure", "West Virginia State University to Honor Katherine Johnson with Statue, Scholarship", "Katherine Johnson to be included in Barbie 'Inspiring Women' series", "Inaugural Inductees Into Government Hall of Fame Unveiled", "NASA Dedicates Building To Hidden Figures Heroine Katherine Johnson", "NASA Honors 'Hidden Figure' Katherine Johnson", "Bethel School District names new school after pioneering black NASA mathematician Katherine Johnson", "Live, Learn, Pursue Passion – NASA Mathematician preps Class of 2006 to find its mission", "MLK Event to Feature 'Hidden Figures' Author Margot Lee Shetterly", National Center for Women & Information Technology, "Obama honoring Spielberg, Streisand and more with medal of freedom", "Katherine Johnson to receive the ASP's new Arthur B.C. You had a mission and you worked on it, and it was important to you to do your job ... and play bridge at lunch." [16] She took on a teaching job at a black public school in Marion, Virginia. Ich zählte die Teller, die ich abwusch. [4][38] Her social influence as a pioneer in space science and computing is demonstrated by the honors she received and her status as a role model for a life in science. During her 35-year career at NASA and its predecessor, she earned a reputation for mastering complex manual calculations and helped pioneer the use of computers to perform the tasks… [1] In 1970, Johnson worked on the Apollo 13 Moon mission. A "human computer" assigned to NASA's Flight Research Division at Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, Johnson was the African-American, then-44-year-old "girl" who was the subject of the astronaut's directive . On November 6, 2020, a satellite named after her (ÑuSat 15 or "Katherine", COSPAR 2020-079G) was launched into space. [1][26] During the Moon landing, Johnson was at a meeting in the Pocono Mountains. During her 35-year career at NASA and its predecessor, she earned a reputation for mastering complex manual calculations and helped pioneer the use of computers to perform the tasks. "[37], Johnson co-authored 26 scientific papers. Still, they called her over after the computer calculations had been made to make sure the trajectory was correct. [10] The family split their time between Institute during the school year and White Sulphur Springs in the summer. [5] Auf diese Weise gelangte Johnson nach nur zwei Wochen mit einer Kollegin zunächst befristet in die Abteilung für Flugforschung, die bis dahin ausschließlich aus weißen Männern bestanden hatte. [49] On May 12, 2018, she was awarded an honorary doctorate by the College of William & Mary. Sie selbst gab zu, dass sie während ihrer Arbeit oftmals auf ihre Intuition zurückgreifen musste, da vieles noch unerprobt war, und dass einer der Astronauten über sie sagte: „Ich würde Kates Intuition jederzeit trauen.“[5] Bis zu ihrer Pensionierung im Jahr 1986 wirkte Johnson darüber hinaus an der ersten Phase des Space-Shuttle-Programms mit.[7]. Schon sehr früh zeigte sich ihre Begeisterung und Begabung für Mathematik, da sie nach eigenen Angaben alles zählte. Sie studierte Französisch und Mathematik im Hauptfach und schloss mit 18 Jahren mit einem Bachelor of Science in beiden Fächern im Jahr 1937 mit Auszeichnung ab. Katherine Johnson erhielt im Laufe ihres Lebens zahlreiche Auszeichnungen für ihre Arbeit und ihre Vorreiterrolle: Für ihre Leistungen als Pionierin der Raumfahrt wurde Johnson von Präsident Barack Obama im November 2015 mit der Presidential Medal of Freedom, einer der beiden höchsten zivilen Auszeichnungen der USA, geehrt. She is quoted as saying "Some things will drop out of the public eye and will go away, but there will always be science, engineering and technology," Ihr Vater, der selbst die Schule nach der 6. Klasse zusammengefasst. [38][39][40] Johnson was named West Virginia State College Outstanding Alumnus of the Year in 1999. [7] Auf diese Weise war Johnson auch an der ersten Erdumrundung eines amerikanischen Astronauten beteiligt. Gemeinsam mit anderen afroamerikanischen Wissenschaftlerinnen wurde sie in dem im September 2016 erschienenen Buch Hidden Figures: The African American Women Mathematicians Who Helped NASA and the United States Win the Space Race: An Untold Story porträtiert. "[3] NASA noted her "historical role as one of the first African-American women to work as a NASA scientist. The space agency noted her "historical role as one of the first Af… [30], Katherine and James Francis Goble had three daughters: Constance, Joylette, and Katherine. Katherine Johnson (pictured in figure 1), one of the central characters in Hidden Figures, is an outstanding example of a computer who, as Barry put it, “pushed the engineers she was working with” and suggested alternate ways of tackling problems. Her father mostly worked as a handyman at the Greenbrier Hotel, while her mother was a teacher. [12] She was the first African-American woman to attend graduate school at West Virginia University in Morgantown, West Virginia. Her mother was a teacher and her father was a farmer and janitor. She was a human computer. She added that, in a time where computing was "women's work" and engineering was left to men, "it really does have to do with us over the course of time sort of not valuing that work that was done by women, however necessary, as much as we might. "Jim" Johnson, a United States Army officer and veteran of the Korean War; the pair were married for 60 years until his death in March 2019 at the age of 93. www.nasa.gov/content/katherine-johnson-biography", "Black history... Katherine G Johnson (1918 – retired), "Katherine G. Johnson: Physicist, Space Scientist, Mathematician", "Peninsula Officials: Regions Disaster-Ready", "Katherine G. Johnson Computational Research Facility Ribbon Cutting", "NASA Dedicates Facility to Mathematician, Presidential Medal Winner", "Katherine Johnson at NASA Langley Research Center", "BBC 100 Women 2016: Who is on the list?
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