We have identified six major belts and two nonbelt occurrences of plutonic rocks in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve and characterized them on the basis of geologic mapping, igneous petrology, geochemistry, and isotopic dating. Glacier Bay National Park is located on the Southeast Alaska coast, about 65 air miles northwest of Juneau. The Glacier Bay region's extreme topography reveals that it is a landscape driven by immense energies. This is a result of the area's position astride the active collision zone between the North American and Pacific plates . This also makes it an attraction for geologists studying rock deformation and glacial features. 2 Department of Geology, The College of Wooster, Wooster, OH . With several peaks over 10,000 feet and the tallest, Mount Fairweather, at 15,300 feet, this is one of the highest coastal mountain ranges in the world. For over 100 million years, North America has been plowing obliquely into the Pacific plate, presently at a rate of several centimeters per year or about the speed at which your fingernails grow. With several peaks over 10,000 feet and the tallest, Mount Fairweather, at 15,300 feet, this is the highest coastal mountain range in the world. ... (3,190 m) being the tallest. Accumulation Area The part of a glacier that is perennially covered with snow. Source: National Park Service. Bald eagle (arrow) on top of Margerie Glacier, Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska. The topside views in Glacier Bay National Park have been almost as exciting as the underwater seascape. 1962: Report of a visit to Hoonah, Alaska, July, 1960: for the purpose of acquiring data on the Tlingit Indian Legends of Glacier Bay. Daniel Lawson 1, 3, Greg Wiles 2 and Nicholas Wiesenberg 2. For at least seven million years, snows have accumulated in the uplands and morphed into glacial ice. Rising above a scene rich with extraordinary wildlife, pristine lakes, and alpine terrain, the Teton Range stands monument to the people who fought to protect it. As these two plates are forced against each other, the compression has pushed some rocks upward to form mountain chains. Mountains rise right from its tidewater up to three vertical miles. A glacier is filled with rock and gravel. The majority of Alaska is made up of fragments of tectonic plates, each of which evolved over hundreds of millions of years as they travelled around the globe to their current position, attached to the North American continent. Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Geology. The resultant rock avalanches cover areas between 5.5 and 22.2 cubic kilometers. Portions of four terranes are found in the park – the Yakutat, Chugach, Wrangellia and Alexander terranes. Here you will find all you need to know about the natural history of the park. As these two plates are forced against each other, the compression has pushed the land upward to form mountain chains. National Parks Service, 09 Dec. 2012. Glacier Bay National Park: Home; About Glacier Bay About this site; Geology and Landform. The soaring mountains house a wide variety of rocks and mineral deposits. Back then, it would have been possible to walk from Glacier Bay to Cape Cod without ever getting off the ice! The guide begins with a short introduction to the science of geology and the geologic time scale, followed by a simplified geologic cross section through the Park from SW to NE. This is a result of the area's position astride the active collision zone between the North American and Pacific plates. As the air rises to go over the mountains, it cools. Still, there is a lot to be excited about. Park and Preserve . Northwest-looking oblique aerial photograph showing part of the higher elevation accumulation area of the Fairweather Range, Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska. A year later Captain Lester S. Beardslee gave the “Glacier Bay” to the area. Glacier Bay National Park & Preserve Image 18: A bald eagle soars among a large number of sea gulls and ravens at South Marble Island, Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska. Others are forced downward and melted in the process. The geologic landscape evokes the human-described landscape found in the ethnographic literature. Accessed June 13, 2016. 1 Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 72 Lyme Road, Hanover, NH . A 4,000-foot-high mountainside collapsed in Glacier Bay National Park this week in a massive landslide that spread debris for miles across the glacier below. Covering the entire state of Alaska, this detailed map reflects more than a century of work by a host of geologists. Glacier Bay National Park: Home; About Glacier Bay. The Canada Goose Infant... Price subject to change | Available through Backcountry.com. 3 Muir Inlet is a recently deglaciated fjord that is under the influence of glacial and paraglacial marine processes. Accessed June 13, 2016. 9: Alaska's Glacier Bay and Kenai Fjords. These geologic bits are called “terranes.” Four such terranes have accumulated in a largely northwest-southeast pattern to form the Glacier Bay region. This also makes it an attraction for geologists studying rock deformation and glacial features. View of Glacier Bay National Park from the air. This newly exposed landscape is being shaped by water, ice, and gravity, as well as biological and tectonic processes. Geology The area is positioned above the active collision zone between the North American and Pacific plates. The tsunami reached 524 m above sea level on the opposite shoreline and killed two people in a small boat. U.S. Department of Interior. In Glacier Bay's west arm you can see evidence of a previous plate boundary exposed at the surface in an area referred to as the, The Tarr Inlet suture zone is one of several ancient plate boundaries that can be found in Alaska. During the height of the most recent of these Great Ice Ages about 20,000 years ago, an ice sheet covered all of the Glacier Bay region except the highest peaks and certain headlands. . This major plate boundary, the Fairweather-Queen Charlotte Fault system cuts across Glacier Bay's western edge. The rocks exposed firstly from the top down are … Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve contains some of the world's most impressive tidewater glaciers. Erratic. Recorded June 21, 2007. The following references are primarily focused on the geology and geography within the park. There is actually a rainforest located in Bartlett Cove. The bay has experienced at least four major glacial advances and four major retreats and serves as an outdoor research laboratory. 1 Coastal and Marine Geology, USGS, Pacific Science Center, Santa Cruz, Calif. 2 USGS, Alaska Science Center, Gustavus, Alaska 3 Coastal and Marine Geology, USGS Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Calif. Details. In August 2020, a commercial fisherman noticed a surprisingly strong current of muddy water, trees, and chunks of ice rushing against the tide near the head of the bay. Figure 1. Glacier National Park is home to one of the worlds most classic geological structures. Sculpting the Land As the ice moves, it plucks rock and debris from the sides and bottom of the valleys. 3 Coastal and Marine Geology, USGS Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Calif. The geology around Glacier National Park is great for beginners because the area is structurally straightforward and formations are generally easy to distinguish. This park is home to the Fairweather Mountains, which formed during the Laramide Orogeny, as well as many glaciers. The geology around Glacier National Park is great for beginners because the area is structurally straightforward and formations are generally easy to distinguish. Others are forced downward and melted in the process. US-Parks.com Inc. All Rights Reserved. Bald Eagle sits on peak in center. A rock of unspecified shape and size, transported a significant distance from its origin by a glacier or iceberg and deposited by melting of the ice. Why cruise Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska. A popular visitor site is Bartlett Cove, which is the jumping off point for cruises into Glacier Bay, to view the calving ice from tidewater glaciers. Make sure your little bundle of joy's first experiences playing in the snow are good ones. The rocks exposed firstly from the top down are old sedimentary rocks of the Belt Supergroup. Back then, it would have been possible to walk from Glacier Bay to Cape Cod without ever getting off the ice! Canada Goose Lamb Snowsuit - Infant Boys'. To view a large version of Figure 1 in a new window, click on the image above. The site includes introductory information about glacial formation and icebergs, links to park maps, and visitor information. Glacier National Park is part of a system of 43 parks and park reserves across Canada, and one of seven national parks in British Columbia.Established in 1886, the park encompasses 1,349 km 2 (521 sq mi), and includes a portion of the Selkirk Mountains which are part of the larger grouping of mountains, the Columbia Mountains.It also contains the Rogers Pass National Historic Site. This collision occurs at a rate of a few centimeters a year and causes numerous large earthquakes. The climate is quite fresh around this city may, but it is tolerable when dressing warm. President Calvin Coolidge proclaimed the area around Glacier Bay a national monument under the Antiquities Act on February 25, 1925. NBC News (2010, April 7) Glacier National Park loses two more. The Earths plates began to form the Rocky Mountains around 170 million years ago . Still, there is a lot to be excited about. Location map of Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, southeast Alaska. The weather in may in Glacier National Park is wet (with 2.8in of rainfall over 12 days). Glacier is wolves and grizzly bears, mountain goats balanced on cliffs, moose munching on water plants, beargrass and avalanche lilies. Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Geology. Continue your tour of the largest state with stops at two spectacular parks that are popular destinations for cruise ships: Glacier Bay and Kenai Fjords. et al. The North American plate pushed into the Pacific plate, which makes these chunks of land called terranes. 2 Department of Geology, The College of Wooster, Wooster, OH . It is … Image Dimensions: 4288 x 2848. For at least seven million years, snows have accumulated in the uplands and morphed into glacial ice. yr ago. . Scan the horizon and you can see the effects of long-ago glaciers, glaciers still at work, and landscapes in various stages of healing in the wake of the scraping and freeze-thaw cycling of glaciers. The soaring mountains house a wide variety of rocks and mineral deposits. . The New York Times (2014, November 22) Climate Change Threatens to Strip the Identity of Glacier National Park. Although smaller, they work in the same way as the larger glaciers of the past, and teach us about Glacier National Park's geologic history. NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska Geodiversity refers to the full variety of natural geologic (rocks, minerals, sediments, fossils, landforms, and physical processes) and soil resources and processes that occur in the park. My specialty is Marine Geophysics and I am the chief of the Seafloor Mapping and Benthic Habitat of the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program that has conducted the benthic habitat mapping of Glacier Bay National Park . Rocks falling on the glacier from above mix with the glacial ice as well. Thanks to John Muirs work Glacier Bay become a National Monument in 1925 and then finally in 1980 it became a national park. Holterman, Jack (2006). Common Belt series rocks found in Glacier … 3 Glacier Bay National Park, Gustavus, AK 99826 4 Corresponding author: email@example.com Introduction For the people of Hoonah, Glacier Bay is At.oow—an owned place of abundant resources, clan origins, and territory. That this is still the morning of creation. National Parks Service . Gustavus, AK Daniel Lawson 1, 3, Greg Wiles 2 and Nicholas Wiesenberg 2. Subsequent to an expansion of the monument by President Jimmy Carter in 1978, the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act enlarged the national … Image 17: Marble Island, Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, covered with sea lions. It was a powerful reminder of the instability of the mountains in this part of Alaska and the risks that that instability creates. Generally, during this collision, the Pacific plate has been forced under the North America plate, but occasional "bits" such as island arcs, pieces of sea floor, fragments of continental margin have been scraped off one plate or the other, shattered, and smeared along the leading edge of North American plate. Web. Glaciers can be large. The pacific plate is sliding underneath the North American Plate at the speed of your finger nails growing causing the terrain to become rugged as a result mountains are being formed,in some spots the plates create summits over 10,000 feet tall. Despite its name, glaciers are only a part of the geology at Glacier Bay National Park. Kate Scharer, USGS, Research Geologist Blue ice visible in foreground, background glaciers grey. Once you know what to look for, viewing Glacier's landscape is like reading a textbook on the geologic effects of glaciation. National Park Ranger Brad Mason shares a bit about the 3 million acres that make up his office. The landscape of Glacier National Park, Montana, and surrounding areas reveal evidence of almost two billion years of geologic change. Welcome to the Glacier Bay National Park Information Page. Coal, limestone, dolomite, copper, and iron are common minerals found in Glacier Bay Prepared for the National Park Service, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve . (2018) report. Abstract. This evidence is preserved in various rock types, including their fossil content, their position and orientation, and the very shape of the mountains and valleys. Frequent earthquakes dramatically illustrate that plate motion continues. It's climate varies from tundra to rainforest. The pika is a close relative of the rabbits and hares, with two upper incisors on each side of the jaw, one behind the other. Lituya Bay, on the west side of the park (part of Glacier Bay National Monument in 1958), has experienced at least 3 tsunamis, the largest occurring in 1958 from an M7.8 earthquake on the Fairweather fault that triggered a rockslide. 1 Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 72 Lyme Road, Hanover, NH . One particular location where the complex geology of Glacier Bay's terranes come together is known as the Tarr Inlet Suture Zone. Scientists are studying the geology and the shape of the fiord to better understand landslide and tsunami risks. You may notice this pattern when examining a map of Glacier Bay. When one visits park headquarters, one sees a lush, temperate rain forest where all was covered by glacial ice just two centuries ago. Fairweather, and a 65-mile long fjord that records a 200-year history of glacier retreat. Glacier National Park is the southern half of the Glacier-Waterton Lakes International Peace Park, extending north-south across the Canadian-U.S. border and east-west across the great Front Range of the Rockies. Cold air holds less moisture than warm air so the air drops its moisture in the form of snow and rain. Home Page Park Info Weather/Climate Geology & Biology Activities & Recreation Camping, Maps, & Trails Special Interest: Bears at Glacier Bay About the Author/Bibliography Geology & Biology. At the present time, the outboard-most terrane and the present continental margin are still “closing the gap.” Frequent earthquakes dramatically illustrate that plate motion continues. Although smaller, they work in the same way as the larger glaciers of the past, and teach us about Glacier National Park's geologic history. Complex geology of Glacier Bay . Cruise passengers will marvel at spectacular scenery, nature and wildlife in the national park, which covers 3.3 million acres of mountains, glaciers, forests and fjords. Glacier National Park is part of a system of 43 parks and park reserves across Canada, and one of seven national parks in British Columbia.Established in 1886, the park encompasses 1,349 km 2 (521 sq mi), and includes a portion of the Selkirk Mountains which are part of the larger grouping of mountains, the Columbia Mountains.It also contains the Rogers Pass National Historic Site. yr ago, and had filled the lower bay by 500 cal. The Silurian limestone (about 425 million years old) of Glacier Bay contain significant large invertebrate fossils! Having previously studied the geologic map of surficial deposits in Glacier National Park, we now move on to the bedrock geology of the park. Glacier Bay has all kinds of unique geological features caused at least in part by the two major fault lines the park sits on top of. The erratic was deposited by the Mendenhall Glacier, seen in the background. U-shaped Valleys Like any other form of water, glaciers follow the most direct course downward. Marble Island, in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, was scoured smooth by glaciers, and is now home to numerous sea lions. At the present time, the outboard-most terrane and the present continental margin are still "closing the gap." The pacific plate is sliding underneath the North American Plate at the speed of your finger nails growing causing the terrain to become rugged as a result mountains are being formed,in some spots the plates create summits over 10,000 feet tall. Glacier Bay National Park. Note the uniform snowline. Glacier ice is blue, as seen here, for the same reasons that water is blue (preferential absorption of red by water molecules). Highlights include … Seafloor geology and potential benthic habitats were mapped in Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, using multibeam sonar, ground-truth information, and geological interpretations. But that is not the only dramatic geologic phenomenon lurking in this glacier-sculpted fjord in southeastern Alaska. National Park Ranger Brad Mason shares a bit about the 3 million acres that make up his office.